Development and validation of a Yoga module for Primary dysmenorrhoea

  • Dr. Vijaya kumar PS Associate Professor, Department of Astanga Yoga, Lakulish Yoga University, “Lotus view” Opp. Nirma University, S.G. Highway, Chharodi, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, INDIA
  • Manjushree N Research Scholar, Lakulish Yoga University, “Lotus view” Opp. Nirma University, Chharodi, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, INDIA.
  • Sahana AU Clinical Psychologist, Department of Astanga Yoga, Lakulish Yoga University, “Lotus view” Opp. Nirma University, Chharodi, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, INDIA.
Keywords: Primary dysmenorrhoea, IYM, Integrated Yoga module


Menstrual pain without organic pathology is considered to be primary dysmenorrhoea. Dysmenorrhoea refers to the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. It is a common gynaecological condition with considerable morbidity affecting majority of the adolescent girls, yet which is under diagnosed and under treated. Yoga can be considered as a simple and safe management tool for Primary Dysmenorrhoea. Studies have reported the beneficial role of Yoga in alleviating the symptoms of Primary dysmenorrhoea; however, a validated Yoga module for Primary dysmenorrhoea is unavailable. This study developed and validated an integrated Yoga module (IYM) for Primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: The IYM was prepared after a thorough review of classical Yoga texts and previous findings. Twenty experienced Yoga experts, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were selected validating the content of the IYM. A total of 38 practices were included in the IYM, and each practice was discussed and rated as (i) not essential, (ii) useful but not essential, and (iii) essential; the content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated using Lawshe’s formula. Results: Data analysis revealed that of the 38 IYM practices, 18 exhibited significant content validity (cut-off value: 0.42, as calculated by applying Lawshe’s formula for the CVR). Conclusion: The IYM is valid for Primary dysmenorrhoea, with good content validity. However, future studies must determine the feasibility and efficacy of the developed module.


Download data is not yet available.


Han SH, Hur MH, Buckle J, Choi JY, Lee MS. Effect of aromatherapy on symptoms of dysmenorrhea in college student: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2006; 12: 535- 541.

Nag RM. Adolescent in India. (page:18-26). Calcutta: Medical Allied Agency; 1982.

Ko H, Le SN, Kim S. Effects of Yoga on Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. 2016. 015880083743370a68ec0a16.pdf

Allsworth JE, Clarke J, Peipert JF, Hebert MR, Cooper A, Boardman LA. The influence of stress on the menstrual cycle among newly incarcerated women. Womens Health Issues 2007;17:202-9.

Kanojia S, Sharma VK, Gandhi A, Kapoor R, Kukreja A, et al. Effect of Yoga on autonomic functions and psychological status during both phases of menstrual cycle in young healthy females. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013; 7: 2133-2139.

Gatantino ML, Bzdewka TM, Eissler-Rnsso JL, Holbrook ML, Mogck EP, Geigle P, et al. The impact of modified hatha Yoga on chronic low back pain: A pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004;10:56-9.

Beets MW, Mitchell E. Effects of Yoga on stress, depression, and health-related quality of life in a nonclinical, bi-ethnic sample of adolescents: a pilot study. Hisp Health Care Int. 2010; 8: 47-53.

Rani M, Singh U, Agrawal GG, Natu SM, Kala S, et al. Impact of Yoga nidra on menstrual abnormalities in females of reproductive age. J Altern Complement Med. 2013; 19: 925-929.

Digamberji S, Gharote ML. Gheranda Samhita. Lonavala, India: Kaivalyadhama S.M.Y.M Samiti, 1997.

Digambarji S, Kokaje RS. Hathapradipika of Svatmarama. Lonavala, India: Kaivalyadhama, S.M.Y.M. Samiti, 1998.

Gharote ML, Devnath P, Jha VK. Hathatatvakaumudi: A treatise on HathaYoga by Sundaradeva. Lonavla, India: The Lonavla Yoga Institute (India), 2007.

Gharote ML, Devnath P, Jha VK. Hatharatnavali of Srinivasayogi. Lonavla: The Lonavla Yoga Institute (India), 2002.

Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Pers Psychol. 1975;28:563–575.

Taimni IK. The science of Yoga: A commentary on the Yoga sutras of patanjali in the light of modern thought, 5th ed. Illinois: Theosophical Publishing House, 1992.

Svatmarama. Hatha Yoga Pradipika of Svatmarama, 4th ed. Madras: Adyar Library and Research Centre, 1994.

Woolery A, Myers H, Sternlieb B, Zeltzer L. A Yoga intervention for young adults with elevated symptoms of depression. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004;10:60–3.

Yurtkuran M, Alp A, Dilek K. A modified Yoga-based exercise program in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled study. Complement Ther Med. 2007;15:164–71.
How to Cite
Dr. Vijaya kumar PS, Manjushree N, & Sahana AU. (2020). Development and validation of a Yoga module for Primary dysmenorrhoea. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences, 5(04), 21-25. Retrieved from
Original Article